As the years passed, the graphophones received many improvements, from the quality of the diaphragm and the recording of the stylus to the introduction of electric motors that drive the machine. However, the biggest innovation happened in 1894, which was patented by the German emigrant Emil Berliner. He devised a way to create flat discs and renamed his graphic design which used this disc as a turntable. Berliner’s first sound recordings were made of glass and later made of zinc and possibly plastic. A spiral groove with sound information was carved into the flat record. To play sound and music, the track is rotated on a turntable. The handle with the gramophone needle landed on the gramophone record. The needle followed the grooves cut on the gramophone record and vibrated left and right, and those micro vibrations were directed to the sound reproducer. The needles were initially made of steel and changed after a few plates, later than sapphires and even later than diamonds. However, some companies, such as “Pathe”, have been producing sapphire needles since the early twentieth century. There were also various other types of needles made of different materials (cactus, bamboo, wood) that did not damage the plates to the extent that steel needles did. An unavoidable addition to old turntables was the horn for reproduction to which vibrations converted into sound were transmitted and amplified. Later, the horn was replaced by an electroacoustic reproduction system.

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