Painters from Constantinople, who were between 1369-1421 emigrated to Kandia (Heraklion), they played a significant role in the creation of Cretan painting, bringing the iconographic and stylistic trends of the Byzantine capital. The new style brought to Crete by the artists of Constantinople and the influence of Western art encouraged by the Venetian presence on the island, as well as the appearance of a rich and educated bourgeoisie that supported art, influenced the appearance of great painters and a distinctive style in icon painting known as the Cretan school of painting or the Italo-Cretan school.
King Milan, faced with challenges and complications, was often preoccupied with the thought of resignation. Expecting a major conflict and war between the two empires in the Balkans, faced with indignation from Saint Petersburg, and unconvinced of the unconditional support of the official Vienna, the Serbian king did not believe that he would be able to persevere in his position for long. The defeat in the war with Bulgaria represented a new blow, and the divorce from Queen Natalie after the scandal in Wiesbaden brought a sense of shame and humiliation. Circumstances inevitably led to abdication in favor of the minor heir to the throne, Alexander.
Although the first years of the marriage of King Milan and Queen Natalie were extremely happy, the situation changed over time. Harmonious relations were disturbed by the numerous infidelities of the Serbian ruler, the dramatic difference in the characters of the spouses, and, finally, the opposites in political views surfaced.
The progressive government, wishing to arm the Serbian army with modern rifles, ordered the collection of old weapons from the people’s army. Radicals saw this measure as a preparation for a coup d’état and as a prelude to the repeal of the Constitution. The situation eventually led to the Timok Revolt, which was suppressed by the standing army in November 1883. Its consequences are: the final end of the existence of the national army, the regular troops become the mainstay of the power of King Milan and the radical party becomes a classic bourgeois party. Two years later, King Milan entered the war with Bulgaria.
The period between the Berlin Congress and the Timok Rebellion in the history of the Principality of Serbia was marked by the complete turn of Prince Milan towards Austria-Hungary as the main supporting force of his policy, centered on the Secret Convention which was signed by Čedomilj Mijatović, Minister of Foreign Affairs, confidant and friend of the prince, and on the Austro-Hungarian side ambassador to Belgrade, Baron Herbert. Another important phenomenon is political parties and the beginning of their political struggle.
The Second War under Prince Milan M. Obrenović IV against the Ottoman Empire and the Path to Independence of Serbia
The second war of the Ottoman Empire and Serbia, which took 708 dead, 2999 wounded, 159 missing and died in the hospital 1534, showed great endurance of the Serbian army, improvement of its readiness, and a shift in the ability of the command staff. Great military successes were followed only by partial diplomatic successes. But the Berlin Congress changed the situation in the Balkans. Instead of the Ottoman Empire and the Balkan states, the two Great Powers, Russia, and Austria-Hungary, began to have the main say with their occupations, protectorates, and spheres of interest.
Easter, a holiday of holidays, is the foundation of the Christian faith. The Serbian people associate a rich tradition of celebration with it, in the center of which is the coloring and painting of eggs, with which the family knocks and give to guests and relatives, and to which they are connected through other customs. Before the appearance of aniline dyes, many plants rich in pigments were used for coloring eggs, while painting eggs, especially in the batik technique with wax, is a special skill. In some parts, special ritual breads are prepared for Easter, on which eggs are placed.
The first war that the Principality of Serbia waged against the Ottoman Empire was instigated by the Herzegovinian Uprising, and began after the proclamation of war on June 30th, 1876, under Prince Milan M. Obrenović IV. It cost Serbia dearly in terms of human losses and suffering of the occupied parts of the country, but it brought significant moral gain. The common interests of the Serbian people in the Principality and Bosnia were brought before the judgement of Europe and enviable national solidarity was shown. The Serbian army and diplomacy were beginning to gain the experience needed for new great efforts.
Representatives of the NATO pact, starting on March 24th, 1999, began an action codenamed “Allied Force”, which in the Republic of Serbia was called “Merciful Angel”. The action included an air campaign to bomb targets in FR Yugoslavia. NATO member states acted without the approval of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). Weapons prohibited by international conventions, such as cluster bombs and depleted uranium ammunition, were used in the bombing.
Prince Milan Obrenović and Natalija Petrovna Keshko got married on October 5th/17th, 1875 in the Cathedral Church in Belgrade, and the best men was the Russian Tsar. The wedding was accompanied by a bad omen. A beautiful and sunny day was suddenly ruined, and a storm threatened. After the wedding, the young couple sat in the wedding carriage, but the harnessed horses did not want to move. When they finally did, they began to curvet and almost overturned the carriage with the newlyweds. Rain and darkness covered Belgrade, and the prince and princess were visibly upset.